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Calhoun wound up resigning before the end of his term. The presidential contest of revolved around the important political issue of the national bank, or the bank controlled by the national government. Jackson believed the Second Bank of the United States established in was unconstitutional, or that it disagreed with the nation's rules.

Also, Jackson maintained that the Bank had failed to establish a sound and uniform currency, or money that could be used across the country. When the Bank applied to Congress to continue its work, Jackson vetoed rejected the bill. Although the bill would pass in the end, Jackson sent a strong message by saying how "the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes.

In the presidential election Jackson and vice presidential candidate Van Buren defeated Henry Clay. Jackson then informed Congress of his intention to pay off the national debt. This goal was achieved on January 1, , thanks to income the federal government received from land sales and tariffs import taxes.

Jackson supported a policy of "rotation" with respect to Federal offices. He declared that no one man has more right to office than any other man. Jackson also supported moving Native Americans west of the Mississippi River as the most humane, or fair, policy the government could pursue in dealing with the Native Americans. Jackson signed more than ninety treaties with various tribes, in which lands owned by Native Americans within the existing states, were exchanged for new lands in the open West.

The Battle That Shaped America’s Destiny

Another issue in Jackson's second term was that of tarriffs. The North called for high rates, but the South considered them a way of financially supporting northern manufacturers at the expense of southern businesses. With the passage of the Tariff of , which reduced the import taxes but not enough to satisfy southern states, South Carolina reacted violently. The state called on Calhoun's doctrine of nullification and soon declared the tariffs of and null and void. The state then warned the federal government that if force were used to execute the law, the state would secede, or withdraw membership, from the Union.

Jackson would not back down, and threatened the state with treason, or a high crime against one's country. A compromise tariff was soon hurried through Congress. Jackson had avoided a national crisis, and his actions during the controversy were masterful.

Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times by H.W. Brands

Through the careful use of presidential powers and compromise, he preserved the Union and upheld the power of federal law. At the end of his two terms in office, having participated in the inauguration of his successor, Martin Van Buren, Jackson retired to his plantation. He continued to keep his hand in national politics until his death on June 8, Booraem, Hendrik. Dallas: Taylor, Collier, Christopher, and James Lincoln Collier. Andrew Jackson's America, — New York: Benchmark Books, Judson, Karen.

Andrew Jackson.

Hillsdale, NJ: Enslow, Meltzer, Milton. Andrew Jackson: And His America. New York: Franklin Watts, Clay hoped to make the Bank an issue in the election, so as to accuse Jackson of going beyond his powers if he vetoed a recharter bill.

Andrew Jackson

He and Webster urged Biddle to immediately apply for recharter rather than wait to reach a compromise with the administration. On January 6, , Biddle submitted to Congress a renewal of the Bank's charter without any of the proposed reforms. Biddle's recharter bill passed the Senate on June 11 and the House on July 3, Many moderate Democrats, including McLane, were appalled by the perceived arrogance of the bill and supported his decision.

Van Buren, is trying to kill me. But I will kill it. It attacked the Bank as an agent of inequality that supported only the wealthy. At Biddle's direction, the Bank poured thousands of dollars into a campaign to defeat Jackson, seemingly confirming Jackson's view that it interfered in the political process. Clay proved to be no match for Jackson's ability to resonate with the people and the Democratic Party's strong political networks. Democratic newspapers, parades, barbecues, and rallies increased Jackson's popularity.

He won the election by a landslide, receiving 54 percent of the popular vote and electoral votes. Clay received 37 percent of the popular vote and 49 electoral votes. Wirt received only eight percent of the popular vote and seven electoral votes while the Anti-Masonic Party eventually declined.


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In , Jackson attempted to begin removing federal deposits from the bank, whose money-lending functions were taken over by the legions of local and state banks that materialized across America, thus drastically increasing credit and speculation. He replaced McLane with William J. Signalling his intent to continue battling the Bank, he replaced Duane with Taney. The moves were intended to force Jackson into a compromise. At first, Biddle's strategy was successful, putting enormous pressure on Jackson.

When people came to him complaining, he referred them to Biddle, saying that he was the man who had "all the money. Biddle's strategy backfired, increasing anti-Bank sentiment.

In , those who disagreed with Jackson's expansion of executive power united and formed the Whig Party , calling Jackson "King Andrew I," and named their party after the English Whigs who opposed seventeenth century British monarchy. The censure was a political maneuver spearheaded by Clay, which served only to perpetuate the animosity between him and Jackson. Polk , declared on April 4 that the Bank "ought not to be rechartered" and that the depositions "ought not to be restored. Jackson called the passage of these resolutions a "glorious triumph.

Polk ran for Speaker of the House to replace Andrew Stevenson. The national economy following the withdrawal of the remaining funds from the Bank was booming and the federal government through duty revenues and sale of public lands was able to pay all bills. On January 1, , Jackson paid off the entire national debt, the only time in U. In , in response to increased land speculation, Jackson issued the Specie Circular , an executive order that required buyers of government lands to pay in "specie" gold or silver coins.

The result was high demand for specie, which many banks could not meet in exchange for their notes, contributing to the Panic of His destruction of the Second Bank of the United States had removed restrictions upon the inflationary practices of some state banks; wild speculation in lands, based on easy bank credit, had swept the West.

To end this speculation, Jackson in had issued a Specie Circular The first recorded physical attack on a U. He had ordered the dismissal of Robert B. Randolph from the navy for embezzlement. During a stopover near Alexandria , Randolph appeared and struck the president. He fled the scene chased by several members of Jackson's party, including the writer Washington Irving.


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  5. Jackson declined to press charges. On January 30, , what is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting president of the United States occurred just outside the United States Capitol. Davis , Richard Lawrence , an unemployed house painter from England, aimed a pistol at Jackson, which misfired. Lawrence then pulled out a second pistol, which also misfired.

    Andrew Jackson’s Early Life

    Historians believe the humid weather contributed to the double misfiring. Others present, including Davy Crockett , restrained and disarmed Lawrence. Lawrence offered a variety of explanations for the attempted shooting. He blamed Jackson for the loss of his job. He claimed that with the president dead, "money would be more plenty," a reference to Jackson's struggle with the Bank of the United States and that he "could not rise until the President fell.

    Afterwards, the pistols were tested and retested. Each time they performed perfectly. Many believed that Jackson had been protected by the same Providence that also protected their young nation. The incident became a part of Jacksonian mythos. Jackson initially suspected that a number of his political enemies might have orchestrated the attempt on his life. His suspicions were never proven. During the summer of , Northern abolitionists began sending anti-slavery tracts through the postal system into the South.